Selected Scientific Publications

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological Profile for Synthetic Vitreous Fibers pp. 441. For more information visit http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp161.pdf

Alexander IC, Brown RC, Jubb GA, Pickering P and Hoskins JA. (1994). Durability of Ceramic and Novel Man made Mineral Fibres. Env Health Perspec 102 Suppl 5:67-71.

Alexander IC and Jubb GA. (1997). Development of a soluble high-temperature insulation fibre. Glastech Ber 70:382-388.

Alexander IC, Jubb GA and Penn JA. (1997). Fibre sizing for classification. Brit Ceram Transact 96(2):74-75.

Bellmann B, Muhle H, Ernst H, Pohlmann G, Sébastien P and Brown RC. (2002). Subchronic studies on man-made vitreous fibres: kinetics of inhaled particles. Ann Occup Hyg 46 (Suppl 1):166-169.

Bellmann B, Muhle H, Creutzenberg O, Ernst H, Brown RC and Sébastien P. (2001). Effects of nonfibrous particles on ceramic fiber (RCF1) toxicity in rats. Inhal Toxicol 13:101-125.

Bellmann B, Muhle H, Kampstrup O and Draeger UF. (1995). Investigation on the biodurability of chemically different stone wool fibres. Exp Toxicol Pathol 47:195-201.

Bernstein DM. (2007). Synthetic vitreous fibers: a review of toxicology, epidemiology and regulations. Crit Rev Toxicol 37(10):839-886.

Bernstein DM, Mast R, Anderson R, Hesterberg TW, Musselman R, Kamstrup O and Hadley J. (1994) An experimental approach to the evaluation of the biopersistence of respirable synthetic fibers and minerals. Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 5):15-18

Bernstein DM, Morscheidt C, De Meringo A, Schumm M, Grimm HG, Teichert U, Thévenaz P and Mellon L. (1997). The biopersistence of fibers following inhalation and intratracheal instillation exposure. Ann Occup Hyg 41:224-230.

Bernstein DM, Morscheidt C, Grimm HG, Thévenaz P and Teichert U. (1996). Evaluation of soluble fibers using the inhalation biopersistence model, a nine-fiber comparison. Inhal Toxicol 8:345-385.

Bernstein DM, Sintes JMR, Ersboell BK and Kunert J. (2001). Biopersistence of synthetic mineral fibres as a predictor of chronic inhalation toxicity in rats. Inhal Tox 13:851-875.

Bernstein DM, Thévenaz P, Fleissner H, Anderson R, Hesterberg TW and Mast R. (1995). Evaluation of the oncogenic potential of man-made vitreous fibres: the inhalation model. Ann Occup Hyg 39(5):661-672.

Berry G. (1999). Models for mesothelioma incidence following exposure to fibers in terms of timing and duration of exposure and the biopersistence of the fibers. Inhal Toxicol 11(2):111-130.

Bignon J, Brochard P, Brown R, Davis JMG, Vu V, Gibbs G, Greim M, Oberdörster G and Sébastien P. (1995). Assessment of the toxicity of man-made fibres; a final report of a workshop held in Paris, France, 3-4 February 1994. Ann Occup Hyg 39(1):89-106.

Brown DM, Fisher C and Donaldson K. (1998). Free radical activity of synthetic vitreous fibers: iron chelation inhibits hydroxyl radical generation by refractory ceramic fiber. J Toxicol Environ Health 55:545-561.

Brown RC. (2000). Influence of non-fibrous particles in the animal testing of refractory ceramic fibres. Applied Mineralogy in Research, Economy, Technology, Ecology and Culture. (Eds.) Rammlmair D, Mederer J, Oberthur T, Heimann RB and Pentinghaus H. Balkema Rotterdam, ISBN 90-5809-1635, pp. 739-742.

Brown RC, Hoskins JA and Glass LR. (1995). The in vivo biological activity of ceramic fibres. Ann Occup Hyg 39(5):705-713.

Brown RC, Sara EA, Hoskins JA, Evans CE, Young J, Laskowski JJ, Acheson R, Forder SD and Rood AP. (1992). The effects of heating and devitrification on the structure and biological activity of aluminosilicate refractory ceramic fibres. Ann Occup Hyg 36:115-129.

Brown RC, Sébastien P, Bellmann B and Muhle H. (2000). Particle contamination in experimental fiber preparations. Inhal Toxicol 12(Suppl 3):99-107.

Brown RC, Bellmann B, Muhle H, Davis JMG and Maxim LD. (2005). Survey of the biological effects of refractory ceramic fibres: overload and its possible consequences. Ann Occup Hyg 49(4):295-307.

Brown RC, Bellmann B, Muhle H, Ernst H, Pohlmann G and Sébastien P. (2002). Subchronic studies on man-made vitreous fibres: toxicity results. Ann Occup Hyg 46(Suppl 1):102-104.

Burge PS, Calvert IA, Trethowan WN and Harrington JM. (1995). Are the respiratory health effects found in manufacturers of ceramic fibers due to the dust rather than the exposure to fibers? Occup Environ Med 52:105-109.

Carthew P, Edwards RE, Dorman B, Brown RC, Young, J, Laskowski J and Wagner JC. (2005). Intrapleural administration of vitreous high duty ceramic fibres and heated, divitrified ceramic fibres does not give rise to pleural mesothelioma in rats. Hum Exp Tox 14(8):657-661.

Cheng RT, McDermott HJ, Gia GM, Cover TL and Duda MM. (1992). Exposures to refractory ceramic fiber in refineries and chemical plants. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 7(6):361-366.

Class P, Deghilage P and Brown RC. (2001). Dustiness of different high temperature insulation wools and refractory ceramic fibres. Ann Occup Hyg 45:381-384.

Class P, Brown RC, Alexander IC, Jubb G and Deghilage P. (1996). Evaluation of the relation between the nominal fibre diameter of bulk refractory ceramic fibres and airborne fibre concentration (dustiness) using a laboratory shaking test box. Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft 56:319-321.

Clayton Environmental Consultants, Inc. (1995). RCC/RCFC Fiber and Particle Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Atlanta, GA.

Cowie HA, Wild P, Beck J, Auburtin G, Piekarski C, Massin N, Cherrie JW, Hurley JF, Miller BG, Groat S and Soutar CA. (2001). An epidemiological study of the respiratory health of workers in the European refractory ceramic industry. Occup Environ Med 58:800-810.

Creutzenberg, O, Bellman, B and Muhle, H. (1997). Biopersistence and bronchoalveolar lavage investigations in rats after subacute inhalation of various man-made mineral fibres. Ann Occup Hyg 41(Suppl 1)213-218.

Davis JMG. (1994). The role of clearance and dissolution in determining the durability or biopersistence of mineral fibers. Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 5): 113-117.

Davis JMG, Addison J, Bolton RE, Donaldson K, Jones AD and Wright A. (1984). The pathogenic effects of fibrous ceramic aluminium silicate glass administered to rats by inhalation or peritoneal injection. Biological effects of man-made mineral fibres. Proceedings of a WHO/IARC Conference) Vol. 2, Copenhagen.

De Vuyst P, Dumortier P, Swaen GMH, Pairon JC and Brochard P. (1995). Respiratory health effects of man-made vitreous (mineral) fibres. Eur Respir J 8:2149-2173.

Dyson DJ, Butler MA, Hughes RJ, Fisher R and Hicks GW. (1997). The devitrification of alumino-silicate ceramic fibre materials - the kinetics of the formation of different crystalline phases. Ann Occup Hyg 41:561-590.

Eastes W, Potter RM and Hadley J. (2000a). Estimating the in-vitro glass fiber dissolu­tion rate from composition. Inhal. Toxicol. 12:269-280.

Eastes W, Potter RM and Hadley J. (2000a). Estimating the in-vitro glass fiber dissolution rate from composition. Inhal Toxicol 12:269-280.

Eastes W and Hadley JF. (1994). Role of fiber dissolution in biological activity in rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 20(3Pt2):104-112.

Elias Z, Poriot O, Danière MC, Terzetti F, Binet S, Tomatis M and Fubini B. (2002). Surface reactivity, cytotoxicity, and transforming potency of iron-covered compared to untreated refractory ceramic fibers. Toxicol Environ Health 65(23):2007-2027.

European Chemicals Bureau. (1999). Biopersistence of fibres: Short-term exposure by inhalation (ECB/TM/26 rev. 7) in Methods for the Determination of the Hazardous Properties for Human Health of Man Made Mineral Fibres (MMMF). (DM Bernstein and JM Riego Sintes, Eds). European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Unit: Toxicology and Chemical Substances.

Everest Consulting Associates (ECA). (1996). Particulate-to-fiber ratios and fiber size distributions in the RCC maximum tolerated dose (MTD) study and in the workplace. Presented to The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Everest Consulting Associates. (2000). The random-effects model applied to refractory ceramic fiber data. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 32:190-199.

Everitt JI, Bermudez E, Mangum JB, Wong B, Moss OR, Janszen D and Rutten AA. (1994). Pleural lesions in Syrian golden hamsters and Fischer-344 rats following intrapleural instillation of man-made ceramic or glass fibers. Toxicol Pathol 22(3):229-236.

Fayerweather WE, Bender JR, Hadley JG and Bastes W. (1997). Quantitative risk assessment for a glass fiber insulation product. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 25:103-120.

Gantner BA. (1986) Respiratory hazard from removal of ceramic fiber insulation from high temperature industrial furnaces. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47:530-534.

Gelzleichter TR, Bermudez E, Mangum JB, Wong BA, Janszen DB, Moss OR and Everitt JI. (1999). Comparison of pulmonary and pleural responses of rats and hamsters to inhaled refractory ceramic fibers. Toxicol Sci 49(1):93-101.

Gelzleichter TR, Mangum JB, Bermudez E, Wong BA, Moss OR and Everitt JI. (1996). Pulmonary and pleural leukocytes from F344 rats produce elevated levels of fibronectin following inhalation of refractory ceramic fibers. Exp Toxicol Pathol 48(6):487-489.

Glass LR, Brown RC and Hoskins JA. (1995) Health effects of refractory ceramic fibres: scientific issues and policy considerations. Occup Environ Med 52(7):433-440.

Hall GS, Rice CH, Lockey JE, Lemasters GK and Gartside PS. (1997). A comparison of exposures to refractory ceramic fibres over multiple work shifts. Ann Occup Hyg 41(5):555-560.

Hesterberg TW, Axten C, McConnell EE, Hart GA, Miiller W, Chevalier J, Everitt J, Thévenaz P and Oberdörster G. (1999) Studies on the inhalation toxicology of two fiberglasses and amosite asbestos in the Syrian golden hamster. Part I. Results of a subchronic study and dose selection for a chronic study. Inhal Toxicol 11(9):747-8.

Hesterberg TW and Hart GA. (2001). Synthetic vitreous fibers: a review of toxicology research and its impact on hazard classification. Crit Rev Toxicol 31(1):1-53.

Hesterberg TW, Hart GA, Chevalier J, Miiller WC, Hamilton RD, Bauer J and Thévanaz P. (1998). The importance of fiber biopersistence and lung dose in determining the chronic inhalation effects of X607, RCF1, and chrysotile asbestos in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 153(1):68-82.

Hesterberg TW, Chase G, Axten C, Miiller WC, Musselman RP, Kampstrup O, Hadley J, Morscheidt C, Bernstein D, and Thévenaz P. (1998). Biopersistence of synthetic vitreous fibers and amosite asbestos in the rat lung following in halation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 151(2):262-275.

Hesterberg, TW, Miiller WC, Musselman RP, Kamstrup O, Hamilton RD, and Thévenaz P. (1996). Biopersistence of man-made vitreous fibers and crocidolite asbestos in the rat lung following inhalation. Fundam Appl Toxicol 29:267-279.

Hesterberg TW and Hart GA. (2000). Lung biopersistence and in vitro dissolution rate predict the pathogenic potential of synthetic vitreous fibers. Inhal Toxicol 12(Suppl 3):91-97.

Hesterberg TW, McConnell EE, Miiller WC, Chevalier J, Everitt J, Thévenaz P, Fleissner H and Oberdörster G. (1996). Use of lung toxicity and lung particle clearance to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for a fiber glass chronic inhalation study in the rat. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 32(1):31-44.

Hesterberg T, Miiller W, Hart G, Bauer J and Hamilton R. (1996). Physical and chemical transformation of synthetic vitreous fibres in the lung and in vitro. J Occup Health Safety - Aust NZ 12(3):345-355.

Hesterberg TW, Miiller WC, Thévenaz P and Anderson R. (1995). Chronic inhalation studies of man-made vitreous fibres: characterization of fibers in the exposure aerosol and lungs. Ann Occup Hyg 39(5):637-653.

Hippeli S, Dornisch J, Wiethege T, Gillissen A, Muller JM and Elstner EF. (2001) Biological durability and oxidative potential of man-made vitreous fibres as compared to crocidolite asbestos fibres. Z Naturforsch C 56:633-648.


International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2002).   IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 81, Man-Made Vitreous Fibres. IARC, Lyon, France.

International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Workshop Participants. (2000). The Relevance of the Rat Lung Response to Particle Overload for Human Risk Assessment. Inhal Toxicol 12(1-2):1-149.

International Organization for Standardization. (1999). Refractory Products: Methods of test for ceramic fibre products. ISO 10635.

LeMasters GK, Lockey JE , Yiin JH, Hilbert TJ and Levin LS. (2003). Mortality of workers occupationally exposed to refractory ceramic fibers. Occup Environ Med 45:440-450.

LeMasters GK, Lockey JE, Levin S, McKay RT, Rice CH, Horvath EP, Papes DM, Lu JW and Feldman DJ. (1998). An industry-wide pulmonary study of men and women manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers. Am J Epidemiol 148:910-919.

LeMasters C, Lockey J, Rice C, McKay R, Hansen K, Lu J, Levin L and Gartside P. (1994). Radiographic changes among workers manufacturing refractory ceramic fibre and products. Ann Occup Hyg 38(Suppl 1):745-751.

Lentz TJ, Rice CH, Succop PA, Lockey JE, Dement JM and LeMasters GK. (2003). Pulmonary deposition modeling with airborne fiber exposure data: a study of workers manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18(4):278-288.

Lentz TJ, Rice CH, Lockey JE, Succop PA and Lemasters GK. (1999) Potential significance of airborne fiber dimensions measured in the U.S. refractory ceramic fiber manufacturing industry. Am J Ind Med 36(2):286-298.

Levin LS, Rice CH, Lemasters GK, Lockey JE and Medvedovic M. (2000). What is the potential measurement error in occupational exposure studies? J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50(6):941-947.

Lockey JE, Roggli VL and Hilbert TJ (2012). Biopersistence of Refractory Ceramic Fiber in Human Lung Tissue and a 20-Year Follow-Up of Radiographic Pleural Changes in Workers. J Occup Env Med 54(7):781–788.

Lockey JE, LeMasters GK, Levin LS, Rice CH, Yiin J, Reutman SS and Papes DM. (2002). A Longitudinal Study of Chest Radiographic Changes of Workers in the Refractory Ceramic Fiber Industry. Chest 121:2044-2051.

Lockey JE and Ross CS. (1998). Health effects of man made fibres. In: Stellman JM (ed). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th ed. Vol I. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office 10:74-78.

Lockey JE, Levin LS, Lemasters GK, McKay RT, Rice CH, Hansen KR, Papes DM, Simpson S and Medvedovic M. (1998). Longitudinal estimates of pulmonary function in refractory ceramic fiber manufacturing workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157(4):1226-1233.

Lockey JE, LeMasters G, Rice C, Hansen K, Levin L, Shipley R, Spitz H and Wiot J. (1996). Refractory ceramic fiber exposure and pleural plaques. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154(5):1405-1410.

Mast RW, Maxim LD, Utell MJ and Walker AM. (2000). Refractory ceramic fiber: toxicology, epidemiology, and risk analyses - a review. Inhal Toxicol 12:359-399.

Mast RW, Yu CP, Oberdörster G, McConnell EE and Utell MJ. (2000). A retrospective review of the carcinogenicity of refractory ceramic fiber in two chronic Fischer 344 rat inhalation studies: an assessment of the MTD and implications for risk assessment. Inhal Toxicol 12:1141-1172.

Mast RW, McConnell EE, Hesterberg TW, Chevalier J, Kotin P, Thévenaz P, Bernstein, DM, Glass LR and Miiller W. (1995). Multiple-dose chronic inhalation toxicity study of size-separated kaolin refractory ceramic fiber in male Fischer 344 rats. Inhal Toxicol 7(4):469-502.

Mast RW, McConnell EE, Anderson R, Chevalier J, Kotin P, Bernstein DM, Thévenaz P, Glass LR, Miiller WC and Hesterberg TW. (1995). Studies on the chronic toxicity (inhalation) of four types of refractory ceramic fiber in male Fischer 344 rats. Inhal Toxicol 7(4):425-467.

Maxim LD, Hadley JG, Potter RM and Niebo R. (2006). The role of fiber durability/biopersistence of silica-based synthetic vitreous fibers and their influence on toxicology. Reg Toxicol Pharm 56:42-62.

Maxim LD, Yu CP, Oberdörster G and Utell MJ. (2003). Quantitative risk analyses for RCF: survey and synthesis. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 38:400-416.

Maxim LD, Boymel P, Chase GR and Bernstein DM. (2002). Indices of Fiber Biopersistence and Carcinogen Classification for Synthetic Vitreous Fibers (SVFs). Regul Toxicol and Pharmacol 35:357–378.

Maxim LD and McConnell EE. (2001). Interspecies comparisons of the toxicity of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers; a weight-of-the-evidence approach. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 33:319-342.

Maxim LD, Allshouse JN and Venturin D. (2000). The random-effects model applied to refractory ceramic fiber data. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 32(2):190-199.

Maxim LD, Allshouse JN, Chen SH, Treadway JC and Venturin DE (2000). Workplace monitoring of refractory ceramic fiber in the United States. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 32:293-309.

Maxim LD, Venturin D and Allshouse JN. (1999). Respirable crystalline silica exposure associated with the installation and removal of RCF and conventional silica-containing refractories in industrial furnaces. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 29(1):44-63.

Maxim LD, Mast RW, Utell MJ, Yu CP, Boymel PM, Zoitos BK and Cason JE. (1999) Hazard assessment and risk analysis of two new synthetic vitreous fibers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 30(1):54-74.

Maxim LD, Allshouse JN, Deadman J, Kleck C, Kostka M, Webster D, Class P and Sébastien P. (1998). CARE: A European programme for monitoring and reducing refractory ceramic fibre dust at the workplace: initial results. Gefahrstoffe-Reinhaltung der Luft 58:97-103.

Maxim LD, Allshouse JN, Chen SH, Treadway J and Venturin D. (1998). The development and use of respirator response functions as part of a workplace exposure monitoring program for control of potential respiratory hazards. Reg Tox Pharm 27:131-149.

Maxim LD, Allshouse JN, Kelly WP, Walters T and Waugh R. (1997). A multi-year workplace monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers: findings and conclusions. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 26(2):156-71.

Maxim LD, Kelly WP, Walters T and Waugh R (1994). A multiyear workplace-monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 20(3):S200-S215.

McConnell EE. (2000). A science-based paradigm for the classification of synthetic vitreous fibers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 32(1):14-21.

McConnell EE, Hesterberg T, Chevalier J, Thévenaz P, Kotin P, Mast R, Musselman R, Kamstrup O and Hadley J. (1996). Results of life-time inhalation studies of glass, mineral and slag wools and refractory ceramic fibers in rodents. J Occup Health Safety – Aust NZ 12(3):327-332.

McConnell EE, Mast RW, Hesterberg TW, Chevalier I, Kotin P, Bernstein DM, Thévenaz P, Glass LR and Anderson R. (1995). Chronic inhalation toxicity of a kaolin-based refractory ceramic fiber in Syrian golden hamsters. Inhal Toxicol 7:503-532.

McConnell EE. (1994) Synthetic vitreous fibers-inhalation studies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 20(3 Pt 2):S22-34

McKay RT, Lemasters GK, Hilbert TJ, Levin LS, Rice CH, Borton EK and Lockey JE. (2011). A long term study of pulmonary function among US refractory fiber workers. Occup Environ Med 68(2):89-95.

McKay RT, Levin LS, Lockey JE, Lemasters GK, Medvedovic M, Papes DM, Simpson SR and Rice CH. (1999). Weight change and lung function: implications for workplace surveillance studies. J Occup Environ Med 41(7):596-604.

Moolgavkar SH, Brown RC and Turim J. (2001). Biopersistence, fiber length, and cancer risk assessment for inhaled fibers. Inhal Toxicol 13:755-772.

Moolgavkar SH, Turim J, Brown RC and Luebeck EG. (2001). Long man-made fibers and lung cancer risk. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 33:138-146.

Moolgavkar SH, Luebeck EG, Turim J and Brown RC. (2000). Lung cancer risk associated with exposure to man-made fibers. Drug Chem Toxicol 23(1):223-242.

Moolgavkar SH, Luebeck EG, Turim J and Hanna L. (1999). Quantitative assessment of the risk of lung cancer associated with occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fibers. Risk Anal 19(4):599-611.

Moore MA, Boymel PM, Maxim LD and Turim J. (2002). Categorization and nomenclature of vitreous silicate wools. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:1-13.

Moore MA, Brown RC and Piggott G. (2001). Material properties of MMVFs and their time dependent failure in lung environments. Inhal Toxicol 13:1117-1149.

Moore MA, Hanna LM, Grumm DM, Turnham P, Yu CP and Jubb GA. (1997). Biopersistence of insulation glass fibres. Ann Occup Hyg 41(Suppl 1):312-319.

Moore, MA, Alexander IC, Jubb GA and Brown RC. (1995). High temperature thermal insulation wools: their benefits, hazard, and future. Proceedings UNITCR. 418-426.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (2006). Criteria for A Recommended Standard, Occupational Exposure to Refractory Ceramic Fibers.  Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgia.

National Research Council (NRC) Subcommittee on Manufactured Vitreous Fibers, Committee on Toxicology. (May 2000) Review of the U.S. Navy’s exposure standard for manufactured vitreous fibers. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

NTP (2011). Ceramic Fibers (Respirable Size) In Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. pp. 89-90.

Oberdörster G. (2000). Determinants of the pathogenicity of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF). Int Arch of Occup Environ Health 73(Suppl):S60-S68.

Okayasu R, Wu L and Hei TK. (1999). Biological effects of naturally occurring and man-made fibres: in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in mammalian cells. Br J Cancer 79(9-10):1319-1324.

Rice, CH, Levin, LS, Borton, EK, Lockey, JE, Hilbert, TJ and LeMasters, GK. (2005). Exposures to refractory ceramic fibers in manufacturing and related operations: a 10-year update. J Occup Environ Hyg 2:462-473.

Rice CH, Lockey JE, LeMasters GK, Levin LL, Staley P and Hansen KR. (1997). Estimation of historical and current employee exposure to refractory ceramic fibers during manufacturing and related operations. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 12(1):54-61.

Rice C, Lockey J, LeMasters G, Dimos J and Gartside P. (1994). Assessment of current fibre and silica exposure in the U.S. refractory ceramic fibre manufacturing industry. Ann Occup Hyg 38(Suppl 1):739-744.

Rödelsperger K. (2004). Extrapolation of the Carcinogenic Potency of Fibers from Rats to Humans. Inhal Toxicol 16:801–807.

Rossiter CE and Chase JR. (1995). Statistical analysis of results of carcinogenicity studies of synthetic vitreous fibers at Research and Consulting Company, Geneva. Ann Occup Hyg 39:759-769.

Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL), Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, European Commission (September 2011). Recommendation from the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits for Refractory Ceramic Fibres. SCOEL/SUM/165.


Trethowan WN, Burge PS, Rossiter CE, Harrington JM and Calvert IA. (1995). Study of the respiratory health of employees in seven European plants that manufacture ceramic fibers. Occup Environ Med 52:97-104.

Turim J and Brown RC. (2003). A dose response model for refractory ceramic fibers. Inhal Toxicol 15:1103-1118.

Utell MJ and Maxim LD. (2010) Refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) toxicity and epidemiology: a review. Inhal Toxicol 22(6):500-521.

Van den Bergen EA, Rocchi PSJ and Boogaard PJ. (1994). Ceramic fibers and other respiratory hazards during the renewal of the refractory lining in a large industrial furnace. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 9(1):32-35.

Venturin D, Deren G and Corn M. (1997). Qualitative industrial hygiene product life cycle analysis applied to refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) consumer product applications. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 25(3):232-239.

Walker AM, Maxim LD and Utell M (2012). Are airborne refractory ceramic fibers similar to asbestos in their carcinogenicity? Inhal Toxicol 24(7):416-424.

Walker AM, Maxim LD and Utell M. (2002). Risk analysis for mortality from respiratory tumors in a cohort of refractory ceramic fiber workers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:95-104.

Yu CP, Ding J, Zhang L, Oberdörster G, Mast RW, Maxim LD and Utell MJ. (1996). A clearance model of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) in the rat lung including fiber dissolution and breakage. J Aerosol Sci 27:151-160.

Yu CP, Ding YL, Zhang L, Oberdörster G, Mast RW, Glass LR and Utell MJ. (1995). Deposition and clearance modeling of inhaled kaolin refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) in hamsters - comparison between species. Inhal Toxicol 7(2):165-177.

Yu CP, Zhang L, Oberdörster G, Mast RW, Maxim D and Utell MJ. (1995). Deposition of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) in the human respiratory tract and comparison with rodent studies. Aerosol Sci Tech 23(3):291-300.

Yu CP, Zhang L, Oberdörster G, Mast RW, Glass LR and Utell MJ. (1994). Clearance of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) from the rat lung: development of a model. Environ Res 65:243-253.

Yu CP, Zhang L, Oberdörster G, Mast RW, Glass LR and Utell MJ. (1994). Deposition modeling of refractory ceramic fibers in the rat lung. J Aerosol Sci 25(2):407-417.

Zoitos BK, De Meringo A, Rouyer E, Thélohan S, Bauer J, Law B, Boymel PM, Olson JR, Christensen VR, Guldberg M, Koenig AR and Perander M. (1997). In vitro measurement of fiber dissolution rate relevant to biopersistence at neutral pH: an interlaboratory round robin. Inhal Toxicol 9:525-540.

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